K is for Kanaka ...
|Kanaka labourers on a Queensland pineapple plantation. |
Source unknown - nla.pic-an24494586
|Kanakas at the Pioneer Sugar Mill [picture] / Reckitt and Mills ca. 1875 PIC Album 261 #PIC/8007/138 NLA|
Some were kidnapped ("blackbirded") or otherwise induced into long-term indentured service.
Of the more than 60,000 Islanders recruited from 1863, the majority were to be "repatriated" (that is, deported) by the Australian Government between 1906-08 under the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 legislation prompted by the White Australia policy.
My great-great-grandfather, Joseph Antoney, made a submission to a Queensland Parliament Inquiry about European labour in the cane fields of north Queensland, stating that European men were unable to labour in the heat. I have currently misplaced his submission :) - my filing system. Joseph employed Japanese labour on his selection "Etonvale" as told by my grandmother. I'm unsure if he employed kanakas.
The Australian South Sea Islander community was recognised as a unique minority group in 1994 after a report by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission found they had become more disadvantaged than the indigenous Australians.
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanaka_(Pacific_Island_worker) accessed 14 Apr 2016